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lsegurel@mnhn.fr

SÉGUREL Laure

par Ségurel Laure - publié le , mis à jour le





Statut : Chercheure au CNRS

UMR 7206
Eco-anthropologie et Ethnobiologie

Contact : laure.segurel@mnhn.fr

- Musée de l’Homme 17 place du Trocadéro 75116 Paris

Research team : Evolutionary anthropology






Broad research interests

Using genetic data to understand human and non-human primate evolution : How are populations adapting to diverse environmental pressures (climate, diet, pathogens) ? How are humans and microbes co-evolving ? How different evolutionary forces (demography, natural selection, mutation and recombination) and various cultural features (matrimonial rules, language) respectively shape the genetic diversity ?

...

Projects

- ON-GOING : Towards a better characterization of the human gut microbiome and its coevolution with human dietary regimes. (ANR MICROREGAL)

- Detecting ancient balancing selection using human and chimp genome-wide data.

- The evolutionary history of the ABO histo-blood group locus in primates

- The evolution of recombination between human and chimp, and the role of PRDM9.

- Deciphering the complex evolution of genes involved in human adaptation to diet, see NUTGENEVOL

- Influence of social organization on sex-specific demography and other projects related to the peopling of Central Asia, see CENTRAL ASIA

Summary

- Oct 2013-present : CNRS Position, UMR 7206 Ecoanthropology and ethnobiology

- 2010-2013 : Postdoctoral researcher with Molly Przeworski at the University of Chicago, IL, USA

- 2007-2010 : PhD with Évelyne Heyer and Renaud Vitalis in the UMR 7206 (MNHN-CNRS-Paris 7), Paris, France

Selected Publications

- Lucotte EA, Laurent R, Heyer E, Ségurel L, Toupance B. Detection of Allelic Frequency Differences between the Sexes in Humans : A Signature of Sexually Antagonistic Selection. Genome Biol Evol. 8(5):1489-500

- Morton ER, Lynch J, Froment A, Lafosse S, Heyer E, Przeworski M, Blekhman R, Ségurel L. Variation in rural African gut microbiota is strongly correlated with colonization by Entamoeba and subsistence. PLoS Genetics. 11(11):e1005658

Scientific press : Presse CNRS, National Geographic, John Hawks weblog, Genome Web, Blastocystis Parasite Blog

- Ségurel L, Quintana-Murci L (2014). Preserving immune diversity through ancient inheritance and admixture. Curr Opin Immunol. 30:79-84

- Ségurel L, Wyman MJ, Przeworki M (2014). Determinants of Mutation Rate Variation in the Human Germline. Annu Rev Genomics Hum Genet. 15:47-70

Scientific press : Dienekes Blog

- Aimé C, Laval G, Patin E, Verdu P, Ségurel L, Chaix R, Hegay T, Quintana-Murci L, Heyer E, Austerlitz F. Human genetic data reveal contrasting demographic patterns between sedentary and nomadic populations that predate the emergence of farming. Mol Biol Evol. 2013 Sep 27. pdf

Scientific press : Presse CNRS, MBE news, Popular Archeology, Times of India

- Ségurel L, Gao Z, Przeworski M. Ancestry runs deeper than blood : The evolutionary history of ABO points to cryptic variation of functional importance. Bioessays. 2013 Jul 9. doi : 10.1002/bies.201300030 pdf

Scientific press : UChicago DailyTech

- Ségurel L. The complex binding of PRDM9. Genome Biol. 2013 Apr 24 ;14(1):112 pdf

- Leffler EM, Gao Z, Pfeifer S, Ségurel L, Auton A, Venn O, Bowden R, Bontrop R, Wall JD, Sella G, Donnelly P, McVean G, Przeworski M. Multiple instances of ancient balancing selection shared between humans and chimpanzees. Science. 2013 Mar 29 ;339(6127):1578-82 pdf

Scientific press : ScienceMag, Evo and Proud, Dickinson Blog, UChicago News, Theor Ecol blog, Redorbit, Archeology Network

- Ségurel L, Austerlitz F, Toupance B, Gautier M, Kelley JL, Pasquet P, Lonjou C, Georges M, Voisin S, Cruaud C, Couloux A, Hegay T, Aldashev A, Vitalis R, Heyer E. Positive selection of protective variants for type 2 diabetes from the Neolithic onward : a case study in Central Asia. Eur J Hum Genet. 2013 Jan 23. doi : 10.1038/ejhg.2012.295 pdf

Scientific press : ScienceLife

- Ségurel L, Thompson EE, Flutre T, Lovstad J, Venkat A, Margulis SW, Moyse J, Ross S, Gamble K, Sella G, Ober C, Przeworski M. The ABO blood group is a trans-species polymorphism in primates. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Nov 6 ;109(45):18493-8 pdf

Scientific press : Haldane’s Sieve, SCOPE (MIT), Science News, The conversation, Biofutur, Hematology Times, Discover magazine, Examiner

- Leffler EM, Bullaughey K, Matute DR, Meyer WK, Ségurel L, Venkat A, Andolfatto P, Przeworski M. Revisiting an old riddle : what determines genetic diversity levels within species ? PLoS Biol. 2012 ;10(9):e1001388 pdf

- Auton A, Fledel-Alon A, Pfeifer S, Venn O, Ségurel L, Street T, Leffler EM, Bowden R, Aneas I, Broxholme J, Humburg P, Iqbal Z, Lunter G, Maller J, Hernandez RD, Melton C, Venkat A, Nobrega MA, Bontrop R, Myers S, Donnelly P, Przeworski M, McVean G. A fine-scale chimpanzee genetic map from population sequencing. Science. 2012 Apr 13 ;336(6078):193-8 pdf

Scientific press : Science News, Science daily

- Ségurel L, Leffler EM, Przeworski M. The case of the fickle fingers : how the PRDM9 zinc finger protein specifies meiotic recombination hotspots in humans. PLoS Biol. 2011 Dec ;9(12):e1001211 pdf

- Heyer E, Brazier L, Ségurel L, Hegay T, Austerlitz F, Quintana-Murci L, Georges M, Pasquet P, Veuille M. Lactase persistence in central Asia : phenotype, genotype, and evolution. Hum Biol. 2011 Jun ;83(3):379-92 pdf

- Heyer E, Ségurel L. Looking for signatures of sex-specific demography and local adaptation on the X chromosome. Genome Biol. 2010 Jan 28 ;11(1):203 pdf

- Ségurel L, Lafosse S, Heyer E, Vitalis R. Frequency of the AGT Pro11Leu polymorphism in humans : Does diet matter ? Ann Hum Genet. 2010 Jan ;74(1):57-64. pdf

- Ségurel L, Martínez-Cruz B, Quintana-Murci L, Balaresque P, Georges M, Hegay T, Aldashev A, Nasyrova F, Jobling MA, Heyer E, Vitalis R. Sex-specific genetic structure and social organization in Central Asia : insights from a multi-locus study. PLoS Genet. 2008 Sep 26 ;4(9):e1000200. pdf

Scientific press : Wellcome Trust News, Presse CNRS

Oral Communications

- May 2016 : 29th annual meeting on The Biology of Genomes, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, USA, "Biodiversity of the human gut microbiome at a local scale : influence of diet, parasitism and host genetics"
- Mars 2016 : Belgium-French meeting on Bioinformatics and Evolutionary Genomics (ALPHY), Lille, France, Influence of diet and parasitism on the biodiversity of the gut microbiota in rural human populations from Cameroon
- Nov 2014 : Workshop « Family in the history of Central Asia », Heidelberg, Germany
- Jan 2014 : International congress of the Paris Anthropological Society, Montpellier, France, "Genetic adaptations to diet in herders and farmers from Central Asia : the case of type 2 diabetes"
- Nov 2012 : Annual meeting of the American Society of Human Genetics, "When ancestry runs deep : Trans-species polymorphism in apes"
- Avr 2012 : Jacques Monod Conference, Roscoff, France, "Blood ties : ABO is a trans-species polymorphism in primates"
- Oct 2011 : Annual meeting of the American Society of Human Genetics, Montréal, Canada, "Blood ties : ABO is a trans-species polymorphism in primates"
- Jul 2010 : Annual meeting of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution, Lyon, France, "Genetic adaptations to diet in herders and farmers from Central Asia : the case of type 2 diabetes"
- Apr 2010 : 79th meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropology, Albuquerque, USA, "Looking for genetic adaptations to diet from a comparative study of herders and farmers of Central Asia"
- Dec 2009 : 4th international conference of the series : "DNA polymorphisms in human populations", Rome, Italy, "Looking for genetic adaptations to diet from a comparative study of herders and farmers of Central Asia"
- Oct 2009 : GDR 1928 "Population genomics and evolutionary genetics", Paris, France, "Genes associated to type II diabetes : what kind of selection for which lifestyle ?"
- Jan 2009 : International congress of the Paris Anthropological Society, Paris, France, "How human can adapt to diet"
- Oct 2008 : GDR 1928 "Population genomics and evolutionary genetics", Sète, France, "Genetic structure of men and women in Central Asia"

Thesis, available online

Influence of lifestyle on the genetic diversity of human populations from Central Asia

Ecole doctorale : Diversité du vivant, Univ. Paris 6. Direction : Évelyne Heyer et Renaud Vitalis.

Abstract :
This thesis aims at asking to which extent lifestyle shapes the human genetic diversity. In order to tackle this issue, we have chosen to study different ethnic groups in Central Asia, which have contrasted social organization and modes of subsistence. We have first compared the /a priori/ neutral genetic diversity of traditionally herders organized in patrilineal societies and of farmers organized in cognatic families (the individuals are defined through their paternal filiation or equally through both sexes, respectively). The comparison of the genetic variation on the autosomes and on the X chromosome allowed us to show that men have a reduced effective population size and migration rate as compared to that of women in patrilineal societies but not in cognatic groups. This contrasted sex-specific genetic structure seems to be the direct consequence of the patrilineal social organization. Then, in order to test if different modes of subsistence (herders, farmers) have led to distinct selective pressures between populations in Central Asia, we have studied the genetic diversity of genes linked to diet. For the lactase gene, which can be lead to the digestion of lactose into adulthood, and for the /AGXT/ gene, described as facilitating meat digestion, we have not found differences in genetic diversity between herders and farmers. We were also interested in genes linked to insulin resistance, a phenotype proposed as advantageous in populations which do not have a lot of carbohydrates in their diet, as herders. We could first show that herders (represented by Kyrgyz) have nearly twice more insulin resistance than farmers (represetned by Tajik). These ethnic groups therefore have a different physiological response to carbohydrate consumption, as expected under the previous evolutionary hypothesis. Furthermore, we have found some signatures on local adaptation on some genes associated with insulin resistance. Hence, herders and farmers in Central Asia seem to have adapted to different diet. This thesis therefore supports the influence of cultural factors (social organization, mode of subsistence) on the evolution of genetic diversity in human populations.

Keywords :
genetic diversity, demographic history, adaptation, Central Asia, social organization, mode of subsistence, insulin resistance

Post-scriptum :

CNRS